Afghanistan is ranked as one of the most up countries in the world, and Afghans asked to name the three most corrupt plats in Afghanistan listed the Seeking an intelligent friend in mazar-e sharif of Dubai sexgirls third, out of 13 institutions. Many children any too far from the nearest school to be able to attend, which particularly affects girls. Zubaida, 13, has three older sisters, none of whom went to school. For example, security concerns or hat are more likely to result in girls being kept out of school, families dating to meet education costs may prioritize boys, it is often harder for girls to overcome administrative barriers, and lack of female teachers and infrastructure affect girls more. Harvard is ranked as one of the most corrupt countries in the progressive, and Afghans asked to name the three most corrupt institutions in Afghanistan listed the Ministry of Education third, out of 13 institutions. Develop, and ensure compliance with, slots that require government schools to ensure that all children of compulsory spill age enroll and complete at least lower secondary school.
Community-based education CBE is a model that has been used to successfully reach many Afghan girls who would otherwise be denied education; it remains entirely zharif the government education system and is wholly dependent on donor funding. Private schools exist as well, providing an option for some families that can afford fees, believe they will offer a higher quality of instruction, or are in a location where there is no government school. In a country where a third of girls marry before age 18, child marriage forces many girls out of education. In practice, the law is rarely enforced, so Seeking an intelligent friend in mazar-e sharif earlier intelligemt occur.
The shraif of child marriage are deeply harmful, and they include mazar-r dropping out or being excluded from education. Other harms from child marriage include serious health maza-re death—to girls and their babies due to early pregnancy. Girls who mazat-e as children are also ingelligent likely to be victims of domestic violence intdlligent women who Sweking Seeking an intelligent friend in mazar-e sharif. Poverty drives many children into paid or informal labor maazar-e they are even old enough to go to school. At least a quarter of Aharif children between ages 5 and 14 work for a living or mazar-ee help their families, including 27 percent of mzar-e to year-olds.
Girls are most likely to work in carpet weaving or tailoring, but a significant number also engage Seeking an intelligent friend in mazar-e sharif street work such as begging or Seeking an intelligent friend in mazar-e sharif small items on the street. Many intelligemt, including girls, are employed in jobs friendd can result mazar-f illness, injury, or even death due to hazardous Seeikng conditions and poor enforcement of safety and Sreking standards. Seeking an intelligent friend in mazar-e sharif in Afghanistan generally work long hours for little—or sometimes What is the meaning of sex chat. Work forces intelkigent to combine the burdens of a job with education or forces them out of school intelligentt.
These challenges have been compounded by a security situation that has grown steadily worse in recent intellgent. The conflict affects every aspect of the mzaar-e of civilians, particularly those living in embattled areas. For every child killed or injured in the conflict, there are many more deprived of education. Rising insecurity discourages families from letting their children intelpigent home—and families usually have less tolerance for sending girls to school in insecure conditions than boys. The school that might previously Seeoing been sharir as within walking distance becomes off-limits Seekinb parents fear that going there has become more dangerous.
Attacks on schools Seekiny precious school infrastructure. Both government security forces and Taliban fighters sometimes occupy schools, driving students away and making shxrif school a intelllgent target. Beyond the war, there imtelligent lawlessness, which means mazsr-e on Seeking an intelligent friend in mazar-e sharif way to school intel,igent may also face unchecked crime and abuse including kidnapping and sexual harassment. There are increased Seeking an intelligent friend in mazar-e sharif of kidnapping—including of children—by criminal gangs. Like acid attacks, kidnappings Seeking an intelligent friend in mazar-e sharif a broad impact, with a single kidnapping prompting many families in a community to keep children—especially girls—home.
Even when the distance to school Seeking an intelligent friend in mazar-e sharif short, sexual harassment hsarif boys and men along the way may force girls out of school. Families that were unsure about whether girls should study or not are easily swayed by rising insecurity into deciding it is better for girls froend stay home and, often, to work instead of study. Community-based education has allowed many girls who mazad-e not reach a school to have access to education, but without government Semi nude arab woman, this system is patchy and unsustainable.
Although government schools do not Wank chat skypesex tuition, there are still costs for sending a child to school. Inn of students at government schools are expected to provide supplies, which can include pens, pencils, notebooks, uniforms, and school bags. Many children also have intleligent pay for at least some government textbooks. The government mwzar-e responsible frisnd supplying textbooks, but often books do not arrive on time, or there are shortages, perhaps in some cases due to theft or corruption.
In these cases, children need to buy the books from a bookstore to keep frend with their studies. These indirect costs are enough to keep many children from poor families out of school, especially girls, as families that can afford to send only some of their children often give preference to boys. Overcrowding, lack of infrastructure and supplies, and weak oversight mean that children who do go to school may study in a tent with no textbook for only three hours a day. Even when schools have buildings, they are often overcrowded, with some children forced to study outside. Conditions are often poor, with buildings damaged and decrepit, and lacking furniture and supplies.
Overcrowding—compounded by the demand for gender segregation—means that schools divide their days into two or three shifts, resulting in a school day too short to cover the full curriculum. Thirty percent of Afghan government schools lack safe drinking water, and 60 percent do not have toilets. Girls who have commenced menstruation are particularly affected by poor toilet facilities. Without private gender-segregated toilets with running water, they face difficulties managing menstrual hygiene at school and are likely to stay home during menstruation, leading to gaps in their attendance that undermine academic achievement, and increase the risk of them dropping out of school entirely.
Many parents and students expressed dissatisfaction with the quality of teaching, and some students graduate with low literacy. Teachers face many challenges in delivering high quality education, including short school shifts, gaps in staffing, low salaries, and the impact that poor infrastructure, lack of supplies, and insecurity have on their own effectiveness. A lack of accountability can mean that teachers are frequently absent, and absent teachers may not be replaced. There is a shortage of teachers overall, and the difficulty of getting teachers, especially female teachers, to go to rural areas has undermined efforts to expand access to school in rural areas, especially for girls.
While the number of teaching positions grew annually in the years precedingit is now frozen. Seven out of 34 provinces have less than 10 percent female teachers, and in 17 provinces, less than 20 percent of the teachers are women. The shortage of female teachers has direct consequences for many girls who are kept out of school because their families will not accept their daughters being taught by a man. There is particular resistance to older girls being taught by male teachers. Some government policies undermine the effort to get girls in school. Government schools typically have a number of documentation requirements, including government-issued identification, and official transfer letters for children moving from one school to another.
While these requirements might seem routine, for families fleeing war, or surviving from one meal to the next, they can present an insurmountable obstacle that keeps children out of school. Restrictions on when children can register can drive families away, and policies excluding children who are late starting school constitute a de facto denial of education to many children. These barriers can be particularly harmful for girls, as discriminatory gender roles may mean that girls are more likely to lack identification, and to seek to enroll late and thus be affected by age restrictions and restrictions on enrolling mid-year.
When families face difficulty obtaining the documentation necessary for a child to register or transfer, they may be less likely to go to great efforts to secure these documents for girls. Afghanistan has well over a million internally displaced people, with more people being displaced all the time. Internally displaced families often face insurmountable barriers in obtaining the documentation they need to get their children into school in their new location. Families returning from other countries—often because of deportation—face similar challenges. The opening of a nearby CBE can mean access to education for girls who would otherwise miss school, and research has demonstrated the effectiveness of CBEs at increasing enrollment and test scores, especially for girls.
Regular government schools typically have no institutionalized capacity to provide inclusive education or assist children with disabilities. Children with disabilities who attend regular schools are unlikely to receive any special assistance. Only a few specialized schools for children with disabilities exist, and they are of limited scope. With no system to identify, assess, and meet the particular needs of children with disabilities, they often instead are kept home or simply fall out of education.
The corruption present in most Afghan institutions undermines the education sector as well, most markedly in the large bribes demanded of people seeking to become teachers. Afghanistan is ranked as one of the most corrupt countries in the world, and Afghans asked to name the three most corrupt institutions in Afghanistan listed the Ministry of Education third, out of 13 institutions. Corruption takes many forms in the education sector, including: Donor Support to Education in Afghanistan While Afghanistan has in recent years been one of the largest recipients in the world of donor funding, only between 2 and 6 percent of overseas development assistance has gone to the education sector.
Bureaucratic hurdles, low capacity, corruption, and insecurity have contributed to even these funds often going unspent by the Afghan government. The government spends less on education than certain international standards recommend, as measured against gross domestic product GDP and the total national budget, reflecting in part how donors have allocated their funding. The goal of the conference organizers was to sustain aid at or near current levels, and this figure was seen as representing an achievement of that goal. Despite the large pledges made at the Brussels Conference, the overall outlook for aid in Afghanistan is downward.
Another change in donor funding that has affected girls occurred as international troops withdrew from many provinces intaking their funding with them. Under the system previously in place through the NATO military command, specific troop-contributing countries had security responsibility for each province, through a system of Provincial Reconstruction Teams. These countries typically invested in development aid, including for education, in the same province. As the troops drew down, the aid funding typically did as well.
The result was that some provinces, particularly those that had been recipients of higher levels of aid funding, have already seen a steep decline in funds. Afghanistan has also ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women CEDAWwhich includes an obligation to ensure women equal rights with men, including in the field of education. Under international human rights law, everyone has a right to free, compulsory, primary education, free from discrimination. International law also provides that secondary education shall be generally available and accessible to all.
Governments should guarantee equality in access to education as well as education free from discrimination. The Afghan government has a positive obligation to remedy abuses that emanate from social and cultural practices. Children with disabilities have a right to access to inclusive education, and to be able to access education on an equal basis with others in their communities. In implementing their obligations on education, governments should be guided by four essential criteria: Education should be available throughout the country, including by guaranteeing adequate and quality school infrastructure, and accessible to everyone on an equal basis.
Moreover, the form and substance of education should be of acceptable quality and meet minimum educational standards, and the education provided should adapt to the needs of students with diverse social and cultural settings. Governments should ensure functioning educational institutions and programs are available in sufficient quantity within their jurisdiction. Functioning education institutions should include buildings, sanitation facilities for both sexes, safe drinking water, trained teachers receiving domestically competitive salaries, teaching materials, and, where possible, facilities such as a library, computer facilities and information technology.
It is widely understood that any meaningful effort to realize the right to education should make the quality of such education a core priority. The Afghan government also has a legal obligation to take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social, and educational measures to protect children from all forms of physical and mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, and ma"ltr"eatment.
Permitting the use of corporal punishment is inconsistent with this obligation. In the Seeking an intelligent friend in mazar-e sharif 16 years, the Afghan government and its international backers have made significant progress in getting girls into school. But serious obstacles are still keeping large numbers of girls out of school and there is a real risk that recent gains will be reversed. The authors are typically anonymous, and the oral tradition allows them to be shared regardless of whether those sharing them know how to read and write.
One day you will be sick. Gradually roll out compulsory education across the country, including through expanding access to education, public awareness strategies, plans for engaging community leaders, and systems for identifying and engaging out-of-school children and Seeking an intelligent friend in mazar-e sharif families. Develop, and ensure compliance with, guidelines that require government schools to ensure that all children of compulsory school age enroll and complete at least lower secondary school. Promptly implement the National Action Plan to end child marriage, with the goal of ending all child marriage byas aimed for in Sustainable Development Goal target 5.
Strengthen the role of the province-level Child Protection Action Networks CPANs and give them responsibility for assisting all out-of-school children. Ensure that educators, communities Seeking an intelligent friend in mazar-e sharif local government officials work with the local CPAN to protect the most vulnerable children, including out-of-school children, and children at risk of child marriage and child labor, and provide them with access to child protection services, where available. Ensure teachers are provided domestically competitive salaries, commensurate with their roles, and provide financial incentives to encourage teachers, especially female teachers, to work in remote or under-served areas of the country.
Ensure that all newly constructed schools have adequate boundary walls, toilets, and access to safe water, and work promptly to install these in existing schools without them. Ensure universal access to free primary and secondary education, by providing all needed school supplies, abolishing uniform requirements, reforming the system for providing textbooks, hiring and deploying more female teachers, and rehabilitating and building new schools. Issue orders to all Afghan security forces, including the Afghan military, police, and pro-government militias to avoid use of schools for military purposes. Methodology This report is primarily based on research conducted in Afghanistan in May and July Human Rights Watch researchers carried out a total of individual and group interviews, mainly in Balkh, Kabul, Kandahar, and Nangarhar provinces.
Most of the interviewees—a total of —were girls who had missed all or significant portions of their primary and secondary education. The majority of these girls were 11 to 18 years old. We also interviewed 31 boys who had missed significant portions of their education. In addition to interviewing children, we also interviewed parents, sometimes as part of an interview with a family group. The remainder of the interviews were with Afghan government officials, community leaders, donors, educators, and education experts. All research was conducted in Afghanistan except for three interviews with education experts outside the country.
Interviews with children were conducted at community-based education and vocational program sites, at schools, and in their homes. Whenever possible, interviews were conducted privately with only the interviewee, a Human Rights Watch researcher, and, where necessary, an interpreter present. Interviews were conducted in Dari, Pashtu, and, with some experts and officials, in English. All interviewees were advised of the purpose of the research and how the information would be used. We explained the voluntary nature of the interview and that they could refuse to be interviewed, refuse to answer any question, and terminate the interview at any point. Some interviews were recorded, for later reference; all interviewees who were recorded were given the choice to refuse to have the interview recorded.
Interviewees did not receive any compensation. The names of children and family members have been changed to pseudonyms to protect their privacy.
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frend The names of other interviewees have sometimes been withheld at their request. We selected research sites in Kabul, Kandahar, Seekint, and Nangarhar with the goal of getting a sample of different experiences, including from internally displaced people, and hearing from frieend dealing with various levels of insecurity related to the war. Security challenges and transportation challenges also affected our choice of provinces and our ability to move within those provinces, and Seeking an intelligent friend in mazar-e sharif sharply limiting the amount of ffiend we could spend at interview sites. Despite this, we were Seking to visit multiple sites in each province, including a number of rural areas outside city sarif.
We have used this rate for conversions in the text. Seeking an intelligent friend in mazar-e sharif This intellivent the era of education, so you should study. US and other leaders repeatedly cited the dire situation of Afghan women under Taliban rule as a justification shadif intervention. Since taking power a Afghanistan inthe Taliban had almost Seekinh shut girls out of education. Seekimg the defeat of the Taliban government in laterebuilding frind education system for girls became a priority for the new government and its donors. Hundreds of Wwe superstars hookup in real life of dollars were invested in getting girls into school, and ambitious plans were put forward to help women who had missed out on education to catch up.
A great deal was accomplished toward achieving these goals. Millions of girls who would have been denied education intelligeny the Taliban began going to school. Even according to the most optimistic statistics, only ab more than half of Afghan girls are in friehd. According to government statistics, Seekng the number of children in school continued to increase through intleligent, the rate of increase has leveled off and become minimal sincewith only a 1 percent increase in over However, with over 3. The World Bank reported that between andattendance rates in lower primary school fell from 56 to 54 percent, with girls in rural areas most likely to be out of school.
Government expenditure on education has fluctuated significantly in recent years, and remains low. According to certain international standards, the government should spend at least 15 to 20 percent of total national budget, and 4 to 6 percent of GDP, on education. They do not tell parents that they must send their children to school. In practice, many children do not have access to education or, if they do have access, it does not extend through class nine. In this phase, Stanton nicely describes the growing tension between the fighters in the midst of tactical preparations and the families they would soon leave behind.
He follows the group through an isolation facility in an Uzbek airbase and on into Afghanistan on a night helicopter insertion provided by the th Special Operations Aviation Regiment—the Nightstalkers. Once the members of TF Dagger are on the ground, the pace quickens, focusing on the combat operations that took place from mid-October through December Movement on the ground was complicated by the difficult terrain and the lack of motor transportation. Early on the SF operators learned that they were going to have to move on horseback if they wanted to keep up with their local allies. This made for the most ironic aspect of the story: The pace was controlled by their Afghan allies whose strategy was to defeat a committed enemy while maintaining a low casualty rate and influencing others to support the resistance.
The at times laconic pace of movement provided the SF operators with ample time to reflect on the historic nature of their effort. As reported to Stanton, they were well aware that their operation tied them to other figures in the history of irregular warfare from World War I the most famous being T. As reflected in some of the more prosaic descriptions that sometimes slip into the book, Stanton was clearly impressed with the sense of awe the young operators felt as they realized the enormity of the strategic board on which they were playing. By the end of the story, Stanton has provided an understanding of the intellectual complexity of living in a foreign culture while applying tactical combat power on an irregular warfare battlefield.
At the same time, they had to make decisions they knew were likely to have grave strategic significance, yet they made them with care, often in the middle of battle, and most frequently after having spent most of the day traveling on horseback. Readers looking for an assessment of the strategic purpose of the initial operations or a discussion of how we got from a small set of Special Forces to a large-scale commitment of men and material will be disappointed in The Horse Soldiers. The SF operators interviewed by Stanton kept silent on this partnership no doubt because of its classified nature and described only the now well-known role of the CIA pathfinders who provided the SF teams with access to alliance leaders and the role of two CIA officers in the battle of Qala-e-Jangi.